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Marxism and Materialism
Karl Marc (1818-1883)
“The whole society must hall into two classes- the properly owners and the propertyless workers/ the members of the society into two groups: workers (the proletariat) and the capitalists (the bourgeoisie)”
“Where machines or computers do most of the productive work, the standard me sure of value for the work carried out by the actual workforce is lost. Marx predicts this leads to widespread social distribution and class struggle”
“The sum total of these material relations of production constitutes the economic structure of the society, the real foundation, on which rises legal and political superstructure and to which correspond definite forms of social consciousness”
He links everything to material, labour and distribution
Power is:
  • top-down
  • restricted
  • oppression
  • black and white
  • located on specific space
Michel Foucault- 1926-1984
Foucault and Genealogy 
“This is what i would call Genealogy, that is a form of history which can account for the constitution of knowledges, discourses, domain of object etc”- Foucault 1988
Foucault and Discourse/ Power
“Thought [or truth]…is not, then to be sought only in theoretical formations as those philosophy and science, it can and must be analysed manner of speaking, doing or behaving”
“There can be no possible exercise of power without a certain economy of discourses of truth which operates through and on the basis of this association. We are subjected to the production of truth through power and we cannot exercise power except through the production of truth”
“Power is employed through a net-like organisation. And not only do individuals circulate between its threads; they are always in the position of simultaneously undergoing and exercising this power…in other words individuals are the vehicles of power, not its points of application”
Foucault and Subjectivity and Surveillance 
Foucault takes subjectivity to be something:
  1. Constituted and specifically something historically constituted;
  2. He associates subjectivity with a reality ontologically distinct from their body;
  3. This however is a form, rather than a substance;
  4. Lastly, the subject for Foucault is constituted through practises.
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